The Great Wall Station of China's Antarctic ecological national field station is the first scientific research station established by China in Antarctica. China has set up a perennial scientific research station in Antarctica for scientific investigation of the Antarctic region. Located on the Fildes Peninsula in the west of King George Island in the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica, it is adjacent to the Great Wall Bay, a small bay in Maxwell Bay in the East. The bay is wide and deep, and it is easy to get in and out. It is backed by snowy slopes all the year round and has sufficient water resources.
There is a beach about 2000 meters long and 300 meters wide near the station site, which is a nature reserve for penguins, birds, whales, plants and fossils. King George Island, where the Great Wall Station is located, is the largest island in the South Shetland Islands. 85% of the island's area is covered with ice and snow. It is located in the low latitude area of Antarctica, surrounded by the sea. It is known as the "tropical" of Antarctica. The average annual temperature is - 2.8 ℃, and the average temperature in January of the warmest month is about 1.5 ℃ The absolute maximum temperature can reach 13 ℃; the average temperature in August of the coldest month is - 7.8 ℃ and the absolute minimum temperature is - 28.5 ℃. The annual precipitation is 550 mm, the annual average wind speed is 7.2 m / s, and the number of gale days with annual wind speed over 10 m / S is 205 days. Located in the multi cyclone zone between the Antarctic Peninsula and the South American continent, the weather changes violently. In addition, the weather here is warmer, the precipitation is more, the annual accumulation and melting amount of ice and snow are larger, the ice flow speed is faster, and the climate change reflected by glacier advance and retreat is more obvious. King George Island is located at the intersection of Antarctica plate, South American plate and Pacific plate. Modern volcanic and seismic activities are frequent. It is a good place to study the crustal structure, magmatic activity, earthquake genesis, atmospheric circulation change and climate evolution.
Lichens, bryophytes and algae grow abundantly near the Great Wall Station, and there are only four species of flowering plants in Antarctica. The coastal zone is the habitat and breeding ground of penguins, seabirds and seals, known as the oasis of Antarctica. It is an ideal place to study the ecosystem and biological resources of Antarctica. The Great Wall Station is surrounded by scientific research stations from Chile, Argentina, the former Soviet Union, Poland, Brazil and Uruguay, and is only 2.7 km away from the malsh base in Chile. There are 35 buildings of various types, totaling 2184 square meters. The project of ionosphere, geomagnetism, upper atmospheric physics, meteorology, glaciers and earthquakes can be carried out. Since September 1986, as one of the 32 basic stations in Antarctica, the meteorological station of Great Wall Station in Antarctica has officially joined the international meteorological monitoring network.
The Great Wall Station is a small scientific research city, where researchers can not only engage in meteorological observation, earth tide observation, satellite Doppler observation, earthquake observation, geomagnetic absolute value observation, high-altitude atmospheric physics observation, etc., but also in biological laboratory, radio wave propagation laboratory, geological laboratory, geomorphology and Quaternary geology laboratory, geophysical laboratory and microcomputer room Comprehensive research, experiment, analysis and data processing were carried out. During the whole year, the Chinese Antarctic expedition carried out routine observations on meteorology, ionosphere, upper atmospheric physics, geomagnetism and earthquakes at the Great Wall Station. During the annual Antarctic summer, in addition to conventional observations, field scientific surveys including geology, geomorphology, geophysics, glaciology, biology, environmental science, human medicine and marine science are also conducted.